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HSP Application note #40

Hansen Solubility Parameter (HSP) of medicine


HSPiP Team Senior Developer, Dr. Hiroshi Yamamoto


I was asked from the researcher who are working in pharmaceutical company. The question is how to treat glucose part of chemicals.
I explained it with hesperidin.

His questions are
how can he calculate HSP of this molecule?

Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSP)

Hansen Solubility Parameters(HSP) were developed by Charles M. Hansen as a way of predicting if one material will dissolve in another and form a solution. They are based on the idea that "like dissolves like" where one molecule is defined as being 'like' another if it bonds to itself in a similar way.
Specifically, each molecule is given three Hansen parameters, each generally measured in MPa0.5:
dD:The energy from dispersion bonds between molecules
dP:The energy from dipolar intermolecular force between molecules
dH:The energy from hydrogen bonds between molecules.
These three parameters can be treated as Vector for a point in three dimensions also known as the Hansen space. The nearer two molecules HSP Vector are in this three dimensional space, the more likely they are to dissolve into each other.

What can perhaps be surprising is that one can assign HSP to so many different things. Gases like carbon dioxide, solids like carbon-60, sugar, and biological materials like human skin, depot fat, DNA, and even some proteins all have HSP. The list can be continued with drugs, polymers, plasticizers, and in fact any organic material and even many inorganic materials like salts. The only requirement for an experimental confirmation is that the material must behave differently in a sufficient number of test solvents upon contact.

Pirika JAVA Demo Applet calculate HSP. HSPLight is available here.
Please refer to e-Book of HSPiP if you want know more about HSP.
About the Power Tools that handle HSP more effectively.

Does it possible to predict solubility of water- ethanol solvent?

This compound's CAS number is 15512-51-3 and you can easily get SMILES structure if you visit ChemSpider HP.
O=C4c5c(O)cc(O[C@@H]2O[C@H](CO[C@@H]1O[C@H]([C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H ]1O)C)[C@@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]2O)cc5O[C@H](c3ccc(OC)c(O)c3)C4

Smiles(Simplified Molecular Input Line Entry Syntax)

SMILES is a string obtained by printing the symbol nodes encountered in a depth-first tree traversal of a chemical graph.
"Organic subset" of B, C, N, O, P, S, F, Cl, Br, and I, brackets can be omitted.
Branches are described with parentheses, as in CCC(=O)O for propionic acid
Double and triple bonds are represented by the symbols '=' and '#'
Ring closure labels are used to indicate connectivity between non-adjacent atoms in the SMILES

Pirika JAVA Demo Applet getting Smiles. Draw2Smiles is available here.
Now we have Power Tool "Draw 2 Smiles", GUI HTML5 software on HSPiP ver. 4.


Only you have to do is paste this Smiles structure into Y-MB text field and push calculation button. Y-MB automatically break molecule into FGs(functional groups) and estimate HSP.

Y-MB Properties Estimation

Y-MB break Smiles into correspponding Functional Groups and Estimate various Properties. These estimation schemes are come from Pirika technologies.

Pirika JAVA Demo Applet calculate Properties. PirikaLight is available here.
Now we have Power Tool "Y-Predict", GUI HTML5 software on HSPiP ver. 4.

The result become [19.1, 11.8, 25.6]. (The figure below is developer version. It also calculate dHdo (Donor) dHac (Acceptor)) Once we get the HSP of molecule, then calculate HSP distance from solvent, we can get solubility.

HSP of Solvents Mixture

[dDm, dPm, dHm]=[(a*dD1+b*dD2), (a*dP1+b*dP2),(a*dH1+b*dH2)]/(a+b)

Volume base ratio.

Pirika Java demo applet design solvents mixture. GSD is available here.


I already explained how to calculate HSP of solvent mixture. It is the just adding Vectors. EtOH [15.8, 8.8, 19.4] water[15.5, 16, 42.3] and the Hesperidine [19.1. 11.8, 25.6], you can easily find the best match solvent mixture with below chart.
70% Ethanol - 30% water become [15.71, 10.96, 26.27].

If you want to determine HSP of Hesperidine with experiment, you need to measure solubility at certain fraction of solvent mixture. And analyze with new Sphere program.

I recommend to calculate partial HSP for large molecule. I named it Region Map method (I am now developing automatic molecular division for large molecule). With this method, HSP of glucose part become [18.3, 15.4, 36.2] and this is almost same with water[15.5, 16, 42.3].
And HSP of remain part is [19.6, 9.5, 15.4] is almost same with EtOH [15.8, 8.8, 19.4].
So I expect the solubility of Hesperidine to water-Ethanol is very good for any ratio.

Hansen Sphere

To determine if the parameters of two molecules (usually a solvent and a polymer) are within range a value called interaction radius (R0) is given to the substance being dissolved. This value determines the radius of the sphere in Hansen space and its center is the three Hansen parameters.

From version 3.1.X, Double Spheres function is available.

Pirika provide JAVA 3D Demo Applet to browse the Sphere(s).
The HTML5 Sphere Viewer examples are available here.
Now we have Power Tool "Sphere Viewer", GUI HTML5 software on HSPiP ver. 4.


It is said that many of the medicine which have glucose, will hydrolysis in stomach.
So real medicine part of HSP is very important, I think.

HSPiP(Hansen Solubility Parameters in Practice)

The first edition of HSPiP that appeared in November, 2008, greatly enhanced the usefulness of the Hansen solubility parameters (HSP).

The HSP values of over 1200++ chemicals and 500 polymers are provided in convenient electronic format and have been revised and updated using the latest data sources in the second edition (March, 2009).

A third edition of the HSPiP appeared in March, 2010. There are now 10,000 compounds in the HSP file which also includes data on density, melting point, boiling point, critical parameters, Antoine constants and much more. The user is able to carry out many different sorts of optimisations of solubility, evaporation, diffusion, adhesion, create their own datasets (automatically if required) and explore the huge range of applications for HSP in coatings, paints, nanoparticles, cosmetics, pharma, organic photovoltaics and much more.

The 3rd Edition v3.1 was released on 12 December 2010. Current users can upgrade free (now v3.1.09) by downloading the latest .msi installer from http://hansen-solubility.com

The 4th Edition v4.0.x was released on 2 Jan. 2013. The Current users can upgrade with free charge.

2013.1.28 The Visual How to manual of HSPiP. You can understand what HSPiP can do.
Please check the Functional Group List whether your targets are available with HSPiP.
How to purchase HSPiP
2013..1.2 The HSPiP ver. 4 include Power Tools for HSPiP power user.



GC data of class 1, class 2 solvents in Q3C:
HSP and Tamiflu: Solubility parameter of Tamiflu or other H1N1 antiviral compounds
HSP for Rabbit: How to design eau de Cologne for rabbit. what LD50(skin, rabbit) means.
HSP and logP: logP, logKow, it is just HSP volume.
HSP and Carcinogenicity: SOM(self organization map) analysis of Poly-chlorinated compounds
HSP and Endocrine Disruptor: categorize by SOM.
HSP and AntimicroBial. Sulfa Drugs and other kind of Drugs.
Gall stone solubilizer: How to dissolve Cholesterol base Gall Stone.
Caco-2 cell monolayer apparent Permeability:SOM analysis